Salience Model – Stakeholder Analysis

Who is a stakeholder? Simply anyone with a stake in the project either direct or indirect.   

PMBOK says that stakeholders for a project are persons or organizations  –  

  • who are actively involved;
  • whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by the performance or completion of it.
Stakeholder analysis is a process of systematically gathering and analyzing qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account when developing and/or implementing a policy or program. 
Remember that more complex your project is, more attention you need to pay in managing stakeholders. You can do all the right things for a project, but mismanaging a stakeholder who has power, influence and interest can cause failure of the project.

Mitchell, Agle and Wood (1997-99) have come up with stakeholder analysis model, that can help a project manager in early phase of planning process to identify stakeholder and classify according to three major attributes – 

  1. Power – to influence the organization or project deliverables (coercive, financial or material, brand or image);
  2. Legitimacy – of the relationship & actions in terms of desirability, properness or appropriateness;
  3. Urgency – of the requirements in terms of criticality & time sensitivity for the stakeholder.

Based on the combination of these attributes, priority is assigned to the stakeholder. 

Level 3
(High Priority)
7 – Definitive
Power, Legitimacy & Urgency
Level 2
(Medium Priority)
4 – Dominant
Power & Legitimacy
5 – Dangerous
Power & Urgency
6 – Dependent
Legitimacy & Urgency
Level 1
(Low Priority)
1 – Dormant
Power
2 – Discretionary
Legitimacy
3 – Demanding
Urgency

 

 Keep in mind that  –  

  • These three attributes can be gained or lost during the time period of the project, so pay attention when it happens. 
  • Level 1 (Low Priority) stakeholders can increase their salience by coalition building, politics, or media influence.
  • Power alone is insufficient to classify a stakeholder high priority; but some times it does, for example – CEO’s favorite project.
  • Stakeholder analysis requires careful planning, standard guidelines for selection of stakeholders, resourceful team members who have background information, and standard set of questions that feed into the worksheet.

More resouces on stakeholder analysis are at  –  

 References – 

  1. PMBOK Guide- 4th edition, PMI. 2008
  2. Schmeer, Kammi. 1999. Guidelines for Conducting a Stakeholder Analysis. November 1999 
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5 Responses to Salience Model – Stakeholder Analysis

  1. Pat Weaver says:

    For an updated model built on Mitchell, Agle and Wood (1997-99) and others, see the work of Dr. Lynda Bourne at http://www.stakeholder-management.com/ . The Stakeholder circle® introduces the concept of movement – stakeholders are not static and effective communication can change attitudes.

  2. […] You can also Google information about almost anything. Bigger business may also wish to use the Stakeholder Salience Model  developed by Brad Agle to more clearly define the stakeholders in your […]

  3. […] You can also Google information about almost anything. Bigger business may also wish to use the Stakeholder Salience Model  developed by Brad Agle to more clearly define the stakeholders in your […]

  4. David Dominic says:

    Great summary there

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