Who is a stakeholder? Simply anyone with a stake in the project either direct or indirect.
PMBOK says that stakeholders for a project are persons or organizations -
- who are actively involved;
- whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by the performance or completion of it.
Mitchell, Agle and Wood (1997-99) have come up with stakeholder analysis model, that can help a project manager in early phase of planning process to identify stakeholder and classify according to three major attributes -
- Power – to influence the organization or project deliverables (coercive, financial or material, brand or image);
- Legitimacy – of the relationship & actions in terms of desirability, properness or appropriateness;
- Urgency – of the requirements in terms of criticality & time sensitivity for the stakeholder.
Based on the combination of these attributes, priority is assigned to the stakeholder.
|7 - Definitive
Power, Legitimacy & Urgency
|4 – Dominant
Power & Legitimacy
|5 - Dangerous
Power & Urgency
|6 – Dependent
Legitimacy & Urgency
|1 – Dormant
|2 – Discretionary
|3 – Demanding
- These three attributes can be gained or lost during the time period of the project, so pay attention when it happens.
- Level 1 (Low Priority) stakeholders can increase their salience by coalition building, politics, or media influence.
- Power alone is insufficient to classify a stakeholder high priority; but some times it does, for example – CEO’s favorite project.
- Stakeholder analysis requires careful planning, standard guidelines for selection of stakeholders, resourceful team members who have background information, and standard set of questions that feed into the worksheet.
More resouces on stakeholder analysis are at -
PMBOK Guide- 4th edition, PMI. 2008
Schmeer, Kammi. 1999. Guidelines for Conducting a Stakeholder Analysis. November 1999